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Students will use reading and Bill Nye video with supplemental reading guides to learn about the various kinds of chemical reactions and how they are written.
UNDERSTAND: S will U that the world around them is always changing.
KNOW: S will know:
• that matter reacts in different ways, which we call reaction types
• *what a synthesis reaction is
• *what a decomposition reaction is
• *what a single replacement (SR) reaction is
• *what a double replacement (DR) reaction is
• *what a combustion reaction is
• the difference between reactants and products
• *the specific reactants and products of a combustion reaction
• *the law of conservation of mass which states that during any chemical reaction, the mass of the products is always equal to the mass of the reactants
• how to distinguish between word problems of the various reaction types
• how to write word equations for each type of reaction
• their response to “Do I notice reactions occurring around me?”
be able to DO: SWBAT:
• write word equations for each type of reaction
• *distinguish between synthesis, decomposition, SR, DR and combustion reactions
• compare and contrast the relationship of reactants to products
• *paraphrase the law of conservation of mass
UNDERSTAND: S will U that matter around them is always changing
KNOW: S will know:
• *how to change word equations into skeleton chemical equations
• *how to indicate the relative amounts of reactants and products in a skeleton chemical equation to give a balanced chemical equation
• *what a catalyst is and why it is needed
• *the symbols used in chemical equations
• *that a balanced chemical equation obeys the law of conservation of mass
• *what molecular formulas, structural formulas, and empirical formulas are
• *how to write molecular, structural, and empirical formulas
be able to DO: SWBAT:
• *write skeleton chemical equations from word equations
• *write balanced chemical equations from skeleton chemical equations
• *write molecular formulas
• *write structural formulas
• *write empirical formulas
• organize molecular, structural, and empirical formulas in relation to each other
• *explain what a catalyst does for a chemical reaction
Standards of Learning:
Virginia SOL: CH.3 Student will investigate and understand how conservation of energy and matter is expressed in chemical formulas and balanced equations. Key concepts include
a) Writing chemical formulas (molecular, structural, empirical, Lewis diagrams)
b) Reaction types (synthesis, decomposition, SR, DR, red-ox, neutralization, exothermic, endothermic)
4. Instructional Strategies to Assess and Elicit Prior Knowledge
I would use the Pre Reading Plan (McKenna 67). The first step would include discussing these questions:
• What are some physical properties of matter? Do you remember what extensive means? What about intensive? What do extensive and intensive have to do with? What do you think a physical change of matter entails? How is a chemical change different? What is at the core of chemical reactions? How many ways do you think matter can interact to become something else? *I would write these responses on the board.
• What are some reasons for your suggestions in our original discussion? Why do you think others in class made the suggestions they did? *I would have the students jot down their answers to these questions before discussing aloud.
• Do you have any new ideas or feelings about physical and chemical changes? What do you think about the ideas presented? *I would have the students jot down their answers to these questions before discussing aloud. These reflections would also go up on the board.
The analysis step would involve assessing where the students fall in the scale of how much prior knowledge they possess. I would *hope* that the majority of the students would at least be at a moderate level of prior knowledge, if not as the high level. For those students whom I acknowledge as having little prior knowledge, I would make sure they are taking the notes from the class discussions which are most relevant to the foundations of chemical reactions.
5. Instructional Strategies to Build Prior Knowledge
I would use an organizational walk-through with simple and systematic listing. I might also use cause and effect, though maybe at a later stage. The systematic listing would be about physical properties, which can be aggregated to either extensive or intensive properties. I would then use a simple listing of the reaction types in order to get the students to see the big picture of the several ways in which matter reacts to become a new substance. The cause and effect model would have chemical changes as the causes and chemical reactions as the effects.
6. Teaching Vocabulary Before Reading
I would use morphology and compare/contrast methods to introduce and teach the vocabulary. I will not expect the students to have a very firm grasp of the words at this point, as context is highly important in this situation. I would ask where they might have heard these or similar words before. We would take notes and make concept cards about the words.
7. Reading Material
There will certainly be various reading levels in my classroom. The main text comes from a standard introductory chemistry textbook for a high school classroom. It scored a 12th grade readability on the Raygor scale. It might be a bit advanced for some readers in my classroom. I also plan on using the Bill Nye video in class. This is very accessible, has a Spanish-language option, and considers vocabulary in an interactive manner. The text set for CARW (which would go with this lesson) included texts which were good also for higher-level readers.
DRTA Handout from Instructional Steps
Method(s) of Assessment:
9. Please insert the DRTA or Think-Aloud that you designed here.
Sections 4, 5, and 6 of this lesson plan demonstrate how I would assess, elicit, and build students’ prior knowledge and pre-teach vocabulary.
I would use the six column chart for the DRTA section of this lesson. According to the names of the various types of reactions, they would be able to hypothesize what the particles of reactants are doing to yield the product. After reading they would then be able to confirm or deny their hypothesis. In the last column, I would ask the students to give an example of the specific type of reaction from the book. We would do one together, then I would ask them to work in 2s/3s for one more, then they would work on their own. I would go around the classroom, offering help as necessary.
Chapter 11.1, 11.2
What do you think this text will tell you?
Write each idea as a
Statement Change each
statement into a
Question(s) What do you think will be the answer to each question?
Make a Hypothesis
After reading the text, what did you find out?
Without looking at the text,
Write the answer
Now, look back at the text to check your answer. Write the page # and part of the text to
Support your answer
Example of this kind of reaction
10. After reading activity
I think this lesson would lend itself nicely to writing a RAFT as an after reading activity. The role would be of a reactant. The students would get to choose which type of reaction they would write about. The audience would be the products of the same reaction. The format would be a letter. The topic would be how the reaction happens. I would have a general rubric from which to give feedback on the RAFTs, though they would be graded only for completion.
I have prepared a unit assessment for the chemical reactions unit in my general methods class with Professor Mintz. The assessment includes binary choice questions which require explanations, short constructed responses (fill in the blank, short answer), longer constructed responses (an essay), and a performance component (measuring volume and mass). I would have to modify the test for use with ELL and students with special needs. Some of the modification might come from asking a teacher to read the test aloud to these students, as reading might slow them down. Another alternative would be to give more time. Directions might also have to be more explicit for these diversities.
Wilbraham, A.C., Staley, D.D., Matta, M.S., & Waterman, E.L. (2005). Chemical Reactions in Chemistry (rev. ed. pp. 320-341, 346-351). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Chang, K. (2010). “At Harvard, the kitchen as lab” [news article]. Online article from printed New York edition of New York Times (pp. D3). http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/20/dining/20Harvard.html?ref=chemistry
Scollon, B., Wood, C. (Producers). (2003). Bill Nye the Science Guy: Chemical Reactions [DVD]. United States: Disney Enterprises, Inc.
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