STORMED Lab


MISSION - Scholars on the STORMED Team conduct research related to the design, implementation, and experimental testing of multimedia-based interventions to support pre- and in-service teachers' knowledge and implementation of evidence-based practices on behalf of students with disabilities and others who struggle.

Supporting Teachers through cOaching, obseRvations, and Multimedia to Educate students with Disabilities

Grant Funded Projects


Researchers on the STORMED team are conducting cutting edge research, and are simultaneously dedicated to training the next generation of doctoral students and special educators.

Please note that each Grant Funded Project has a project detail page and these are listed in the left-hand navigation.

STORMED Team


Michael Kennedy Team Lead

STORMED LAB Team Lead, Michael Kennedy

Faculty Profile

Rachel Kunemund

Rachel Kunemund is the project manager for the S4 OSEP Stepping Up Technology Implementation grant.

Staff Profile

STORMED Doctoral Students


Lindsay Carlisle

Lindsay Carlisle

Anna Myers

Anna Myers

Victoria VanUitert

Victoria VanUitert

Doctoral Students Bios


  • Lindsay Carlisle

    Ph.D. in Education, Concentration in Special Education – Curry School of Education & Human Development at the University of Virginia – expected 2023
    M.S. in Special Education, Curriculum & Instruction Specialist – Longwood University
    B.S. in Elementary Education – Lebanon Valley College


    After graduating with her B.S. in Elementary Education and additional certification in Special Education from Lebanon Valley College, Lindsay spent seven years working as a special education teacher in collaborative and self-contained math classrooms across grades 6, 7, and 8 in Pennsylvania and Virginia. After attaining her M.S. in Special Education from Longwood University, she became increasingly interested in supporting special educators’ use of evidence-based practices, leading to her pursuit of doctoral studies and research. Currently, Lindsay is a doctoral student in the Curry School of Education & Human Development at the University of Virginia. Her specific research interests include improving outcomes for teachers of, and students with, emotional and behavioral disorders. Lindsay is interested in using multimedia learning tools to provide teachers with access to, and support with implementing, evidence-based practices to support the needs of students with disabilities.

    Office: Curriculum, Instruction, & Special Education (CISE)
    Email: lmc8ff@virginia.edu

  • Anna Myers

    Ph.D. in Education, Concentration in Special Education – Curry School of Education & Human Development at the University of Virginia – expected 2022
    Master of Teaching in Special and Elementary Education - Curry School of Education & Human Development at the University of Virginia
    Bachelor of Arts Language and Literature University of Virginia


    Anna is a doctoral student in the department of Curriculum Instruction and Special Education. She is also working on the Reading Specialist Certification. Anna’s research interests are teacher preparation as it pertains to struggling readers (specifically those with or at-risk for dyslexia). Anna comes to her doctoral studies after 18 years in the classroom teaching students in Pre-K through high school. She has worked with a range of students with disabilities. She is also trained as a trainer in the Wilson Reading System, an Orton-Gillingham based reading intervention.

    Email: amm4b@virginia.edu

  • Victoria J. VanUitert

    Ph.D. in Education, Concentration in Special Education – Curry School of Education & Human Development at the University of Virginia – expected 2022
    Master of Teaching in Special and Elementary Education - Curry School of Education & Human Development at the University of Virginia
    B.S. Psychology, Utah State University


    Victoria is a doctoral student in the special education program at the University of Virginia. Her research interests focus on the development of interventions to support scientific content and conceptual knowledge growth among students with high-incidence disabilities and enhancing teacher practices to further facilitate science achievement in these students. These interests are influenced by her experience as an elementary-school teacher of students with disabilities, English learners, gifted students, and general education students, as well as her experience with NASA’s Pre-Service Teaching Institute. Victoria is a NSF CADRE Fellow (2019-2020), a student representative of the Teacher Education Division of CEC (2020-2022), and was formerly the student representative for the Division of Learning Disabilities of CEC (2018-2019).

    Email: vv3ty@virginia.edu

STORMED Products


STORMED Publications


  • Publications related to the CT Scan and Coaching Model

    Nagro, S., Hirsch, S., & Kennedy, M. J. (in press). A self-led approach to improving classroom management practices using video analysis.  Teaching Exceptional Children.  

    *Weiss, M. P., Glaser, H., & Lloyd, J. W. (2020). An exploratory study of an instructional model for co-teaching.  Exceptionality.  Doi: 10.1080/09362835.2020.1727338

    Rodgers, W. J., Kennedy, M. J., VanUitert, V., & Myers, A. M. (2019). Using technology with classroom observations to provide feedback to teachers of students with learning disabilities. Intervention in School and Clinic, 55, 103-112.  doi: 10.1177/1053451219837640

    *Peeples, K. N., Hirsch, S. E., Gardner, S. J., Keeley, R. G., Sherrow, B. L., McKenzie, J. M., Randall, K. N., Romig, J. E., & Kennedy, M. J. (2019).  Using multimedia instruction and performance feedback to improve preservice teachers’ vocabulary instruction.  Teacher Education & Special Education, 42, 227-245doi: 10.1177/0888406418801913

    VanUitert, V. J., Kennedy, M. J., Rodgers, W. J., Romig, J. E., & Alves, K. D. (2019). A multimedia professional development process for teacher education and professional development.  In. D. Polly, C. Martin, & K. Dililitas (eds.).  Handbook of research on educator preparation and professional learning 2nd edition, (pp. 1-13).  doi: 10.4018/978-1-5225-8583-1.ch00

    *Weiss, M. P., & Glaser, H. (2019). Instruction in co-teaching in the age of Endow F.  Behavior Modification. Doi: 10.1177/0145445519836071

    *Kennedy, M. J., Rodgers, W. J., Romig, J. E., Mathews, H. M., Peeples, K., (2018). Introducing the content acquisition podcast professional development (CAP-PD) process: Supporting vocabulary instruction for inclusive middle school science teachers.  Teacher Education & Special Education, 41, 140-157doi: 10.1177/0888406417745655

    *Kennedy, M. J., Rodgers, W. J., Romig, J. E., Lloyd, J. W., & Brownell, M. T. (2017). The impact of a multimedia professional development package on inclusive science teachers’ vocabulary instruction.  Journal of Teacher Education, 68, 213-230.  doi: 10.1177/0022487116687554

    *Holbrook, Jennifer, "The Effects of an Online Coaching Model on Secondary Co-teaching Teams in Algebra" (2017). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 5561. https://stars.library.ucf.edu/etd/5561

    Kennedy, M. J., Rodgers, W. J., Gressick, W. T., Romig, J. E., Alves, K. D. (2017). The classroom teaching (CT) scan: A flexible observation tool for general and special education. In D. Edyburn (Ed.) Advances in Special Education Technology: App development in special education.Bingley, United Kingdom, Emerald Publishing Group. 

    * = Study where the CT Scan was used as dependent measure or part of independent treatment (or both)

  • Publications Related to Content Acquisition Podcasts - For Students

    * = Empirical Study

    *VanUitert, V. J., Kennedy, M. J., Romig, J. E., & Carlisle, L. M. (in press). Enhancing science vocabulary knowledge of students with learning disabilities using explicit instruction and multimedia.  Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal. 

    Boyle, J., & Kennedy, M. J. (2019). Innovations in classroom technology for students with disabilities.  Intervention in School and Clinic, 55, 67-70doi: 10.1177/1053451219837716

    *Kennedy, M. J., Rodgers, W. J., Romig, J. E., Mathews, H. M., Peeples, K., (2018). Introducing the content acquisition podcast professional development (CAP-PD) process: Supporting vocabulary instruction for inclusive middle school science teachers.  Teacher Education & Special Education, 41, 140-157doi: 10.1177/0888406417745655

    Romig, J. E., Rodgers, W., Alves, K. D., & Kennedy, M. J. (2016). Open and free education resources for K-12 online and face-to-face classrooms. In S. Bryans-Bongey & K. Graziano (Eds.), Online Teaching in K-12: Models, Methods, and Best Practices for Teachers and Administrators (pp. 245-261). Information Today. 

    *Kennedy, M. J., Deshler, D. D., & Lloyd, J. W. (2015).  Effects of multimedia vocabulary instruction on adolescents with learning disabilities.  Journal of Learning Disabilities, 48, 22-38.  doi: 10.1177/0022219413487406

    *Kennedy, M. J., Thomas, C. N., Meyer, J. P., Alves, K. D., & Lloyd, J. W. (2014). Using evidence-based multimedia to improve vocabulary performance of adolescents with LD. Learning Disability Quarterly, 37, 71-86. doi: 10.1177/0731948713507262

    Kennedy, M. J., & Wexler, J. (2013). Helping students succeed within secondary-level STEM content—Using the “T” in STEM to improve literacy skills. Teaching Exceptional Children, 45(4), 26-33. 

    Kennedy, M. J., Lloyd, J. W., Cole, M., & Ely, E.  (2012).  Specially designed vocabulary instruction in the content areas: What does high quality instruction look like? Teaching Exceptional Children, 45(1), 7.  

  • Publications Related to Content Acquisition Podcasts - For Teachers

    * = Empirical Study

    Publications from Current or Past STORMED Team Members

    *Hirsch, S. E., Lloyd, J. W., & Kennedy, M. J. (2019). Professional development in practice: Improving novice teachers’ use of evidence-based classroom management practices. Elementary School Journal, 120, 61-87.   

    *Peeples, K. N., Hirsch, S. E., Gardner, S. J., Keeley, R. G., Sherrow, B. L., McKenzie, J. M., Randall, K. N., Romig, J. E., & Kennedy, M. J. (2019).  Using multimedia instruction and performance feedback to improve preservice teachers’ vocabulary instruction.  Teacher Education & Special Education, 42, 227-245doi: 10.1177/0888406418801913

    *Thomas, C. N., Peeples, K. N., Kennedy, M. J., & Decker, M. (2019). Riding the special education technology wave: Policy, obstacles, recommendations, actionable ideas, and resources. Intervention in School and Clinic. 54, 295-303doi: 10.1177/1053451218819201

    *Kennedy, M. J., Rodgers, W. J., Romig, J. E., Mathews, H. M., Peeples, K., (2018). Introducing the content acquisition podcast professional development (CAP-PD) process: Supporting vocabulary instruction for inclusive middle school science teachers.  Teacher Education & Special Education, 41, 140-157doi: 10.1177/0888406417745655

    *Romig, J. E., Sundeen, T., Thomas C. N., Kennedy, M. J., Philips, J., Peeples, K., Rodgers, W. J., & Mathews, H. M. (2018).  Using multimedia to teach self-regulated strategy development to pre-service teachers.  Journal of Special Education Technology, 33, 124-137. doi: 10.1177/0162643417746373

    *Alves, K. A., Kennedy, M. J., Kellems, R. O., Wexler, J., Rodgers, W. J., Romig, J. E., & Peeples, K. N. (2018). Improving preservice teacher vocabulary instruction: A randomized controlled trial. Teacher Education & Special Education, 41, 340-356doi: 10.1177/0888406417727044

    *Kennedy, M. J., Rodgers, W. J., Romig, J. E., Lloyd, J. W., & Brownell, M. T. (2017). The impact of a multimedia professional development package on inclusive science teachers’ vocabulary instruction.  Journal of Teacher Education, 68, 213-230.  doi: 10.1177/0022487116687554

    *Kennedy, M. J., Hirsch, S. E., Rodgers, W. J., Bruce, A., & Lloyd, J. W. (2017). Supporting high school teachers’ implementation of evidence-based classroom management practices.Teaching and Teacher Education. 63, 47-57. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2016.12.009

    *Park, E., Kulbok, P., Keim-Malpass, J., Drake, E., & Kennedy, M. J. (2017). Adolescent smoking prevention: Feasibility and effect of participatory video production. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 36, 197-204. doi: 10.1016/j.pedn.2017.07.001

    *Kennedy, M. J., Wagner, D., Stegall, J., Lembke, E., Miciak, J., Alves, K. D., Brown, T., Driver, M. K., & Hirsch, S. E. (2016). Using content acquisition podcasts to improve teacher candidate knowledge and application of curriculum-based measurement. Exceptional Children, 82, 303-320. doi: 10.1177/0014402915615885

    *Kennedy, M. J., Alves, K. D., Miciak, J., Romig, J. E., Mathews, H. M. & Thomas, C. N. (2016). Evaluating the relationship between naturalistic content acquisition podcast views and course performance. Teacher Education and Special Education39, 293-307. doi: 10.1177/0888406416659529

    *Kennedy, M. J., Hirsch, S. E., Dillon, S. E., Rabideau, L., Alves, K. D., & Driver, M. K. (2016). Using multimedia to increase university students’ knowledge and to reduce perceived cognitive load. Teaching of Psychology, 43, 153-158. doi: 10.1177/0098628316636295

    *Weiss, M. P., Evmenova, A., Kennedy, M. J., & Duke, J. (2016). Creating content acquisition podcasts (CAPs) for vocabulary: The intersection of content and pedagogy. Journal of Special Education Technology. doi: 10.1170/0162643416673916

    Kennedy, M. J., Alves, K. D., & Rodgers, WJ. (2015). Innovations in the delivery of content knowledge in special education teacher preparation. Intervention in School and Clinic, 51, 73-81. doi: 10.1177/1053451215579268

    Kennedy, M. J., Kellems, R. O., Thomas, C. N., & Newton, J. R. (2015). Using content acquisition podcasts to deliver core content to preservice teacher candidates.  Intervention in School and Clinic, 50, 163-168.  doi: 10.1177/1053451214542046

    *Hirsch, S. D., Kennedy, M. J., Haines, S., Thomas, C. N., &Alves, K. D. (2015). Improving teacher candidate knowledge and application of functional behavioral assessments using multimedia. Behavioral Disorders, 41, 38-50. doi: 10.17988/0198-7429-41.1.38

    *Ely, E., Pullen, P., Kennedy, M. J., & Williams, M. C., (2015).  Using multimedia to improve evidence-based vocabulary instruction in elementary classrooms. Journal of Special Education Technology, 30, 59-72.

    *Sayeski, K. L., Kennedy, M. J., de Irala, S., Clinton, E., Hamel, M., & Thomas, K. (2015). The efficacy of multimedia modules for teaching basic literacy-related concepts. Exceptionality, 23, 237-257. doi: 10.1080/09362835.2015.1064414

    *Kennedy, M. J., Thomas, C. N., Aronin, S., Newton, J. R., & Lloyd, J. W. (2014).  Improving teacher candidate knowledge using content acquisition podcasts. Computers & Education70, 116-127. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2013.08.010

    * Ely, E., Kennedy, M. J., Pullen, P., Williams, M. C., & Hirsch, S. E. (2014). Improving instruction of future teachers: A multimedia approach that supports implementation of evidence-based vocabulary practices. Teaching and Teacher Education, 44, 35-43. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2014.07.012

    *Ely, E., Pullen, P., & Kennedy, M. J., Hirsch, S. E., & Williams, M. C. (2014).  Use of instructional technology to improve preservice teacher knowledge of vocabulary instruction. Computers & Education, 75, 44-52. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2014.01.013.

    *Driver, M. K., Pullen, P. C., Kennedy, M. J., Williams, M. C., & Ely, E. (2014). Using instructional technology to improve preservice teachers’ knowledge of phonological awareness. Teacher Education and Special Education, 37, 309-329.  doi: 10.1177/0888406414537902

    *Kennedy, M. J., Aronin, S., Newton, J. R., O’Neal, M., & Thomas, C. N. (2014). Creating multimedia-based vignettes with embedded evidence-based practices: A tool for supporting struggling learners.  Journal of Special Education Technology, 29(4), 15-30.  

    *Kennedy, M. J., Driver, M. K., Pullen, P. C., Ely, E., & Cole, M. T. (2013).  Improving teacher candidates’ knowledge of phonological awareness: A multimedia approach. Computers & Education. 64, 42-51. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2013.01.010

    *Kennedy, M. J., & Thomas, C. N.  (2012).  Effects of content acquisition podcasts to develop preservice teachers’ knowledge of positive behavioral interventions and supports. Exceptionality, 20. 1-19. doi: 10.1080/09362835.2011.611088

    *Kennedy, M. J., Newton, J. R., Haines, S., Walther-Thomas, C., & Kellems, R. O.  (2012). A triarchic model for teaching “introduction to special education”: Case studies, content acquisition podcasts, and effective feedback. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 20, 251-275. 

    *Kennedy, M. J., Ely, E., Thomas, C. N., Pullen, P. C, Newton, J. R, Ashworth, K, Cole, M, T., & Lovelace, S. P. (2012).  Using multimedia tools to support teacher candidates’ learning.Teacher Education and Special Education, 35, 243-257. doi: 10.1177/0888406412451158

    *Kennedy, M. J., Hart, J. E., & Kellems, R. O. (2011).  Using enhanced podcasts to augment limited instructional time in teacher preparation.  Teacher Education and Special Education, 34, 87-105. doi: 10.1177/0888406410376203


    Publications Using CAPs from Unaffiliated Scholars

    *Firestone, A., & Rodl, J. (2020). Integrating with purpose: Leveraging content acquisition podcasts to enhance preservice teachers’ knowledge of positive behavior interventions and supports with three different instructional conditions.  Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 28(1), 5-32. https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/210406/

    *Hirsch, S. E., Chow, J. C., & Randall, K. N. (2020). Evaluating the effect of embedded responses in multimedia-based instruction with preservice teachers. Behavioral Disorders. Doi: 10.1177/0198742920911178

    *McNamara, S. W. T., Wilson, K. R., & Petersen, A. (2020). Content acquisition podcasts’ impact on preservice teachers’ understanding of language and disability. British Journal of Educational Technology. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12927

    *McNamara, S., Dillon, S., Becker, K., Healy, S., & Trujillo-Jenks, L. (2020). The impact of podcasts on special education administrators’ understanding of adapted physical education services.  International Journal of Disability, Development and Education. DOI: 10.1080/1034912X.2020.1731437

    True Daley, J. (2020). Chapter 15: Content acquisition podcasts: Evidence-based presentations for online literacy instruction. In R. Karchmer-Klein & K. E. Pytash (Eds.) Effective Practices in Online Teacher Preparation for Literacy Educators (pp. 307-325). DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-0206-8.ch015

    Green, K. B. (2019). Increasing relevancy and learning through audio-visual content acquisition podcasts.  Engaged Student Learning: Essays on Best Practices in the University System of Georgia, 1, 23-25.

    *Green, K. B., Stuckey, A., Towson, J. A., Robbins, S. H.m & Bucholz, J. L. (2019). Special education preservice teacher knowledge of mathematics methods: The effects of content acquisition podcasts (CAPs).  Journal of Special Education Technology. 10.1177/0162643419854494

    *Carlisle, A. A., Thomas, C. N., & McCathren, R. B. (2016). The effectiveness of using a content acquisition podcast to teach phonological awareness, phonemic awareness, and phonics to preservice special education teachers. Journal of Special Education Technology, 31, 87-98. Doi: 10.1177/0162643416651723

    *Williams, Caroline Elizabeth, "Enhancing Scientific Comprehension Through Content Acquisition Podcasts" (2016). Theses and Dissertations. 6552. https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/etd/6552